Taiwan has gone through a bitter time in international society similar to that of Hong Gil-dong, who couldnt call his father Father or his brother Brother. This is because of Chinas principle of One China.
The Republic of China was the official name of Taiwan in 1912 when the country was first founded. This name Taiwan was used when the then-Nationalist Party government evacuated to the island during the 1949 Communist Revolution.
During the Cold War, it was also called Free China.
Taiwan is currently listed under the name "Chinese Taipei by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). This naming convention comes from Chinas opposition to the usage of the name Republic of China or Taiwan. During the Athens 2004 Olympic Games, Taiwan won two gold medals for the first time in its history, but the Taiwan Olympic Committees flag went up instead of the countrys flag.
When Taiwan restored unofficial diplomatic relations with Korea in 1993, it wished to use the name Republic of China Mission in South Korea, but Korea, being aware of China, disagreed to it, and both settled on using the name Taipei Mission in South Korea.
The Korean press generally uses the name Taiwan Mission in South Korea to avoid confusing readers.